Loneliness has a negative influence on both physical and mental health in both neurotypical and neurodivergent people, and Autistic people have rates of loneliness that are up to four times higher than their peers. Autistic individuals are also more susceptible to the negative physical and psychological impacts of loneliness.
Social surroundings, on the other hand, frequently operate as barriers, making it more difficult for persons with higher levels of sensory abnormalities to interact with others.
A new study published in the journal Autism in Adulthood studied Autistic people’s experiences and tried to measure the level of misery associated with loneliness while also providing a qualitative perspective into Autistic adults’ loneliness.
Dr Gemma Williams, a public health research officer in the School of Health and Social Care, is one of the authors.
She said, “In the quantitative part of the study, our results indicate that sensory differences are related with higher loneliness and associated poor mental health in both Autistic and non-autistic adults. This effect was exacerbated in Autistic adults due to a greater presence of sensory processing differences.”
For the qualitative part of the study, she collated first-hand reports from Autistic adults on intense loneliness and the obstructive role of sensory environments which refute stereotypes about Autistic adults lacking social motivation.
For example, one of the participants explained that where people live can have a big impact on their social interaction. She said: “The cost of transport in the city, it’s really quite expensive and prohibitive for some people. So, especially if people are out of work or in transient work or zero-hour contracts where they don’t know how much or how many hours they’re gonna get from one month to the next.”
During a cost-of-living crisis, meeting up for activities may be out of reach for many individuals, but Autistic people are especially vulnerable as they frequently experience financial inequalities relating not only to a lack of employment opportunities and support but also access to benefits.
Taken together, the research team’s two studies confirm that loneliness is significantly related to feelings of distress and poor mental health in both Autistic and non-autistic adults.
Moreover, experiencing sensory differences in a world that does not accommodate variant sensory profiles may drive people to become increasingly isolated, contributing to feelings of loneliness.
One participant described the difficulties she had experienced in making friends, “Sometimes I have trouble having a conversation or being understood because I don’t have the same thought process. Which makes it weird sometimes and people are wondering ‘What are you saying?’ or ‘I can’t understand what do you mean?'”
Another added: “I’m trying to reach out, I’m trying to find my people, but it all still feels a bit hopeless.”
As sensory differences are especially prevalent in the Autistic community, they may compound other societal, social, and affective factors, ultimately giving rise to higher numbers of loneliness and associated distress.
Dr Williams added: “Our research highlighted how painfully loneliness is often experienced by Autistic adults. We conclude that to enable meaningful and inclusive social interaction, a real societal effort is needed to create spaces that consider the sensory needs of all neurotypes.”
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